Рубль в декабре ждут сказочные испытания

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Новогодние горки нацвалюты: утонет в проруби или взлетит на трамплине

Рубль в декабре ждут сказочные испытания
фото: Наталья Мущинкина

Январь начался с курса 59,6 за доллар, а декабрь завершился показателем 58,6. И это притом, что нефть тогда стоила $55–62 за доллар. В нынешнем году курс постоянно скакал, колеблясь в диапазоне от 58 до 68 рублей за доллар и от 69 до 79 — за евро. Хотя нефть большую часть года уверенно росла — с $64 до $80 за баррель, и лишь с середины октября скатилась назад, к $60. И вот осталось пройти последний месяц года, который, собственно, и покажет: рухнет курс в прорубь или взлетит, как на трамплине.

Надо сказать, декабрь приготовил рублю, словно сказочному герою, целую россыпь испытаний. Первое из них может случиться уже в понедельник, 3 декабря, когда валютный рынок начнет «переваривать» политические итоги саммита «большой двадцатки» в Буэнос-Айресе. И не факт, что эти итоги будет истрактованы биржевыми игроками в пользу России и ее нацвалюты.

Не успеет рубль перевести дух, как в середине недели грядет большой саммит ОПЕК и примкнувших стран — экспортеров нефти. Там будет решаться судьба знаменитого соглашения ОПЕК+ о сокращении добычи нефти, и, соответственно, станет понятно, смогут ли участники остановить падающий вот уже полтора месяца баррель. Ну а о том, как зависит рубль от цены нефти, в нашей стране знают даже дети. Если, не дай бог, нефтяные страны с участием России не договорятся, можно смело предсказывать новое падение «деревянного».

В середине месяца в большую валютную игру вступают центробанки. На 14 декабря намечено последнее в этом году заседание совета директоров Банка России с вопросом о ключевой ставке, на 19 е — заседание ФРС США с аналогичным вопросом по ставке американской. Велика вероятность, что американцы свою повысят, что поднимет акции доллара во всем мире и спровоцирует отток капитала с развитых рынков, включая Россию. А все это вместе — новый удар по рублю.

На этом список возможных неприятностей для российской нацвалюты отнюдь не заканчивается. Ведь именно на декабрь приходится пик выплат по внешнему долгу отечественных компаний и банков— $8 млрд., в два раза больше, чем было в ноябре. То есть эти самые компании и банки начнут на открытом рынке активно покупать доллары и продавать рубли, подрывая заодно и курс российских дензнаков.

А еще есть угроза заокеанских санкций. Активизация риторики американских политических деятелей, даже при отсутствии реальных шагов, вполне способна напугать иностранных инвесторов, которые до сих пор контролируют четверть рублевого госзайма. Если они ударятся в бега и начнут сбывать свои бумаги, это приведет к наводнению финансового рынка рублями и новому ослаблению курса российской нацвалюты. Аналогичная реакция может последовать при любом витке геополитической напряженности — хоть с Украиной, хоть с Сирией и далее везде…

К этому стоит добавить, что доллар традиционно под Рождество повышается за счет бурной циклической активности международных интернет-магазинов. А вот у рубля прямо противоположная традиция, его курс к концу декабря всегда ослабляется: ведь у биржевиков наступают длинные новогодние каникулы, и они сразу «роняют» рубль на две недели вперед.

Тем не менее герой русских народных сказок, как известно, все препятствия преодолевал, со всеми трудностями справлялся и в конце концов получал свою царевну и полцарства в придачу. В принципе, сказочный сюжет для рубля — когда по итогам декабря его курс окажется крепче ноябрьского — совсем уж не исключен. И нефть, и геополитика, и решения центробанков могут сложиться в его пользу. Но вероятность того, что на этих предновогодних горках он все-таки поскользнется и упадет, эксперты оценивают гораздо выше. Слишком уж много впереди препятствий и слишком они сложные для нашего «деревянного» героя.

Большинство прогнозистов считает, что к началу 2019 года рубль потеряет 5–10% своей стоимости по сравнению с ноябрьским уровнем. Это значит, что год Свиньи мы начнем с долларом за 70 и с евро за 80.

Источник: ria-news.ru

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